The Ducal garden was planned around 1560 by Duke Ottavio Farnese, who created a country house park with a great variety of trees and a large number of citrus shrubs in earthenware pots. The ornamental lake was a later addition. It was subsequently completely redesigned by Petitot and adorned with fine statues. During the reign of Marie-Louise the garden was opened to the public and finally in 1866 passed into the ownership of the city council. Within the park there is a little theatre which puts on shows for children.
The Palatine Library, which owes its foundation in the eighteenth century to the Dukes Filippo and Ferdinando of Bourbon, has enjoyed printing rights since 1768 and was the first in Italy to adopt the author card catalogue system. The original fitted wooden shelving was designed by E. A. Petitot. Since the Unification of Italy it has been a National Library and the Musical Section and the Bodoni Museum have been annexed to it.
Toschi Goito Kennedy Conservatorio
A customary place to pause in Parma is in Piazza Garibaldi, the heart of the city, which covers the area of the ancient Roman forum. The Town Hall and the thirteenth-century palace which was formerly the residence of the Captain of the People can be found here.